Windshield Repair: What Everyone Needs To Know


Your vehicle’s windshield is composed of three layers: two pieces of glass separated by a thin layer of “PVB” (polyvinyl butyrate). PVB is the plastic film that essentially holds it all together. Depending on the density of the outer-layer and the force of a rock impact, the glass can flex and break. Unless the windshield is completely shattered, most often the damage is in the form of a rock chip. These are generally in the shape of a star, bullseye, or tiny crack. Although it may appear innocuous, over time, a rock chip will more likely than not spread to form a crack. Studies have shown that over 90% of rock chips continue to grow. Fatigue stress due to temperature changes and road conditions work to accelerate this process.Image result for Windshield Repair:

The first company to introduce a rudimentary system for windshield repair was 3m, with a product called “Scotch Weld.” This system produced an ultrasound vibration to clean the break while injecting an adhesive. It was relatively effective; however it failed to repair many types of damage.

In 1972, Dr. Frank Werner invented a device that could substitute the air within a rock chip with a resin that could prevent a crack from developing. Over time, the science behind windshield repair evolved. Today, windshield repair is considered a favored alternative to windshield replacement in many circumstances. And although the science has evolved, the objective remains the same: to completely substitute the air within the break with an acrylic resin that will improve optical clarity, prevent further damage, and restore the structural integrity of the windshield.


Windshield repair is essentially preventative maintenance. However, most motorists whose windshields suffer rock damage pay little or no mind to it. This is especially true where the damage is outside of the acute area of the windshield – not directly in front of the driver’s view. Hence the saying: “out of sight, out of mind.”

Once the rock chip spreads to become a large crack, windshield repair is no longer a viable option. Unfortunately, the cost of a new windshield can range anywhere between $300 to well over $1000, depending on the vehicle and the type of replacement windshield. OEM windshields, those made by the original manufacturer, are significantly more expensive than their aftermarket counterparts. In addition, many modern windshields offer features such as heating elements, sun coatings, and antennae, which significantly inflate the cost. Even with insurance, the deductible can be so high that it would be pointless to file an insurance claim. Thus, it is easy to understand why a $50 windshield repair is a favored alternative.

But a windshield replacement cost is not the only issue. Once a factory windshield is replaced, other problems can surface. Windshield replacement compromises the factory seal, which is nearly impossible to replicate. Not only can an improperly replaced windshield lead to leakage and possible water damage, it can fail in the event of an accident.Image result for Windshield Repair:

Together with the air bags and seatbelts, the windshield plays a significant part of the vehicle’s safety restraint system (SRS). In an accident, the windshield works to maintain the structural integrity of the passenger compartment. As you can imagine, this is especially important in the event of a roll-over accident. It also cushions the occupant’s impact and prevents the possibly of being ejected from the vehicle. An improperly installed windshield could fail on all of these fronts.

An investigative report conducted by ABC’s 20/20 shed light into the dangers surrounding improperly installed windshields. It found that millions of windshields have not been installed properly and have contributed to serious injuries and even death.

So there are many reasons why a vehicle owner should opt for windshield repair early on. Ignoring the small and seemingly unintrusive rock chip could prove to be a mistake. For more info visit


Every year about 15 million windshields – about 600 million pounds of waste – are replaced in the United States. Until recently, much of it has ended up in landfills due to logistical obstacles, difficulties with separating the glass from the PVB, and lack of facilities.

Only recently have companies begun to take up the environmental cause. In 2010, JN Phillips Auto Glass launched its “Green Shield” program and began recycling windshields. To date, over a million pounds of used windshields have been successfully recycled. Still, the process is slow, cumbersome, and expensive. It also involves the transportation of massive amounts of windshields, adding to the carbon footprint.

What is more, windshield recycling is not required by law, so most replaced windshields continue to end up in landfills. The reason is simple economics: lack of incentive to recycle. As of yet, windshield recycling is not subsidized by the government, nor is it given considerable preferential tax treatment. Since the cost of recycling eventually shifts to the consumer, the cost of a new windshield would increase significantly. To compete in the competitive free market world of windshield replacement, recycling is simply not cost effective.

Windshield repair, on the other hand, leaves almost no impact on the environment. Whereas about 250,000 BTU’s are necessary to manufacture a typical 30 pound windshield, windshield repair requires practically no energy. What is more, the amount of waste generated from windshield repair is negligible. Thus, windshield repair is always a greener alternative to replacement.


Insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against risk of contingent, uncertain loss. The insurer agrees to indemnify the insured in the event of a loss. Overall, it’s a pretty simple process. However, a significant portion the claim may not be covered by the insurer. This is known as the deductible – the amount that must be paid out of pocket before an insurer will cover any expenses. The average deductible for both collision and comprehensive claims is roughly around $500. This can be difficult to digest when the time comes to file a claim. In many cases, the insured will simply forgo filing the claim to avoid having to pay the deductible and possibly risk an increase in premiums. Not to mention, if a new windshield costs $400, filing a claim would be pointless with a $500 deductible.

Today, most insurance companies understand the importance of having the windshield repaired before it’s too late. To incentivize motorists to repair rock chips and small cracks, a majority of comprehensive policies carry with it a 100% indemnity on windshield repair. No deductible is required. Insurance companies realize that most rock chips inevitably will require a new windshield if left untreated. In most cases the rock chip will be a certain loss.

So from a risk management perspective, insurance companies benefit by paying the full cost of a windshield repair. First, it eliminates the risk that the insurer will be required to pay significantly more for a new windshield. And second, it eliminates the risk that a damaged or replaced windshield could fail to provide the structural integrity necessary in the event of an accident.


There are many inexpensive DIY (Do-It-Yourself) windshield repair kits on the market. Those that come to mind include “Liquid Glass,” “Pitstop,” and “Fix-A-Windshield,” to name a few. These are simple plastic devices that essentially use the same process. Most cost around $10 to $20 and have a one time use.

Reviews on DIY kits vary greatly. Some report good results, while others regret making their own attempt at repair. The only certainty is that a successful repair is not certain.

According to, these kits are essentially “inexpensive band-aids” that don’t provide a complete repair. The reason is simple science. The basic idea of windshield repair is to remove the air contained within the rock chip and completely substitute it with resin, which can be up to 2000 times as dense as air. Removing the air is essential to minimize the pressure inside the rock chip, allowing the resin to flow and reach the entire break. Unfortunately, cheap DIY kits simply are ineffective at removing all of the air. What is more, they do not provide the amount of pressure necessary to force the resin to reach tighter areas of the break, leaving much of it untouched. What may appear to be a decent repair job may in fact just be a band-aid that will fail to prevent a crack from spreading.

Finally, cheap windshield repair kits are just that: cheap. It follows that the resin used to fill the break is also cheap. Acrylic resin used by professional windshield repair technicians can range from $50 to $100 an ounce, depending on the manufacturer. So it makes sense that the resin from a DIY kit repair can dislodge over time or become discolored, which has been reported by many users. Also, once the repair is complete, it is impossible to re-repair.

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Maserati GranTurismo Convertible Sport: Performance and Tech Specs

The Maserati GranTurismo Convertible Sports boost a 4.7L V8 engines and delivers 444 hp at 7,000 rpm with a maximum torque of 376 lb-ft at 4,750 rpm. The engine noise varies depending on whether the exhaust bypass valves are open or closed and it defines the vehicle’s performance set by its driver. Important technical improvements have been introduced in the Maserati GranTurismo Convertible Sport compare to its predecessors, such as an upgraded sport skyhook adaptive suspension system which is standard and features aluminum dampers that continuously adjust the ride to the road conditions. The model boosts exclusive powerful dual-cast technology Brembo brakes. The four discs are grooved and ventilated to cope with more determined driving. The six-speed automatic transmission operates in five modes: auto normal, auto sport, manual normal, manual sport and ice. MC Auto Shift is automatically activated when the Auto Sport mode is selected, enabling the car to sprint from 0 to 60 mph in just 5.2 seconds.Image result for Maserati GranTurismo Convertible Sport

The driver has the option to manually control the transmission through the “Trofeo Design” shift paddled mounted on the steering wheel, which are slightly longer than in the previous models to further facilitate changing gears. The accelerator mapping has improved for better throttle response and the MC Start Strategy, which derives from the GranTurismo MC, has been introduced to optimize acceleration. The Maserati GranTurismo Convertible Sport features a new Maserati Stability Program (MSP) calibration that allows driver to push the car to its limit within the bounds of safety.

The first service is at 12,500 miles or after two year and subsequently every 25,000 miles. A transferable four years/50,000 mile new car limited warranty with 24/7 roadside assistance.Image result for Maserati GranTurismo Convertible Sport

Technical Specs

*Displacement: V8 4.7L
* Bore: 3.7in
* Stroke: 3.33 in
* Compression ratio: 1:11
* Maximum Power Output: 444 hp at 7,000 rpm
* Peak torque: 376 lb-ft (510 Nm) at 4,750 rpm

* Maximum Speed: 177 mph
* 0 – 60 mph acceleration: 5.2 s

* Length: 192.2 in
* Width (wide side mirrors): 80.9 in
* Width (without side mirrors): 75.4 in
* Height: 53.3 in
* Wheelbase: 115.8 in
* Front track: 62.4 in
* Rear track: 62.6 in
* Front overhang: 42 in
* Boot capacity: 6.1 cu-ft
* Fuel Tank capacity: 19.8 gal
* Curb weight: 4,365 lbs
* Weight distribution: 49% front, 51% rear with closed soft top; 48% front and 52% rear with open soft top

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Record Thrilling Moments With GoPro Camera Sports Cam

Since the past two decades, extreme sports have been increasingly popular among teenagers and adventurous young adults alike. With the dawn of X Games, a sports event developed by ESPN, a growing number of teens and young adults are spending their weekend getaway enjoying adventure sports that involve speed, special gear, height, risk, and adrenaline rush. Extreme sports have become a popular category of sports, aside from the conventional ones like football, rugby, basketball or baseball.Image result for GoPro Camera Sports Cam

High-risk sports like ice climbing, motor cross, wave jumping, snowboarding and surfing are some of the sports that can be categorized as extreme. One has to make sure that every regulation have been followed and sports equipment and gear have been inspected and tested to ensure safety, as the slightest mistake could lead to fatal injury or death. Since extreme sports involve a lot of details, costs and risks, this type of sports could not be done as frequent as the conventional ones. Furthermore, due to the same reason, an extreme sports fan should consider getting sports camera like helmet or motorsports cameras from GoPro Camera to capture and record their exciting moments.

As the number 1 maker of wearable sports cameras in the world, GoPro has years of experience in developing cameras and mounting accessories for the most hardcore of sports. As a result, the company has won many coveted awards and recognitions, including Motorcyclist magazine’s “2009 Product of the Year” award and the “Editors’ Choice Award” from both Popular Mechanics and Backpacker Magazine.

Some of the most popular GoPro Camera types on the market today are the GoPro Camera HD Motorsports HERO and the GoPro Camera HD Helmet HERO. Boasting professional quality full HD video that looks amazing even on a 52-inch television, the GoPro Camera HD Motorsports HEROoffers remarkably easy to use features -thanks to the user-friendly default setting. Simply power on and press the shutter button. Designed for surfers, motorcyclists, auto sports enthusiasts, and other extreme sports fans/athletes, the GoPro Camera offers 3 video recording options. User can opt the 1080p/30fps recording that offers ultimate High Definition experience, 960p/30fps recording which enables maximum wide angle to record your every technique and moves, or the 720p/60 fps that allows you to record in liquid-smooth slow-motion.Image result for GoPro Camera Sports Cam

The Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, coupled with state-of-the-art sensor technology present you the richest and most natural color available in wearable sports camera. Thus, you can move back and forth between different ambience settings without sacrificing exposure adjustments and video quality. Known for producing extremely stable video recording at the highest speed of the most intense sports, GoPro designs the camera to offer amazingly stable video combined with additional Automatic 5Mp Photo Capturing feature that can shoot photos every 2, 5, 10, 30 or 60 seconds. Take your GoPro Camera HD Motorsports HEROwherever you go skiing, snowboarding, or anytime and anywhere, worry-free. The waterproof/shockproof polycarbonate housing protects the camera from hazardous elements or accidental fall/shock and enables it to dive down as deep as 60 meters underwater.

The GoPro Camera HD Motorsports HERO comes with Automatic Gain Control to bring professional-quality sound, reducing sound of wind noise at high speed without any manual settings or adjustments. There are several photo taking modes that you can select, including triple-shot and self-timer shot. With memory capacity that can work with 2GB SD Card memory capacity up to 32GB SD Card (not included), you can take up to 9+ hours of video and thousands of snapshots using your GoPro Camera HD Motorsports HERO. An expansion port on the back of GoPro Camera HD Motorsports HERO enables user to click in Bakpac modules for add-on features like LCD Bakpac and click-in secondary battery, the Battery Bakpac.

The same amazing features come pre-loaded with the GoPro Camera HD Helmet HERO. Full HD Video in 3 optional filming modes, Automatic 5MP photos, superb audio, shock/waterproof to 60m, rechargeable battery with built-in warmer and hours of video recording with 32GB SD Card are the features that can be enjoyed by GoPro Camera HD Helmet HERO user. You who purchase the award-winning GoPro Camera HD Helmet HERO, you can easily transfer file to your computer via the on-board USB, or premiere your video via HDTV, & Composite Video+Audio-Out Cables.

Speaking of camera battery, each GoPro Camera comes with 1100mAh Lithium-Ion battery that lasts 2.5 hours. Simply charge it with your laptop -as it is rechargeable through any USB port- or with any USB compatible wall/automobile charger. There is an integrated battery warmer to help keep battery warm when you are in a colder region of the globe or during winter sports. The camera can be used while you charge so you can record road trips. Backed with one-year manufacturer’s warranty, the GoPro Camera apparently strives to give no reason for power/action sports fan not to go for it…

Product Features:
– Easy-to-apply mounts allow for quick attachment to various different styles of helmets, sports vehicle or other types of vehicle
– Optional 720p and WVGA resolutions at 60 frames per second ensure smooth slow motion playback
– Professional quality, full High Definition video recording up to 1080p
– 170° wide-angle lens lets user take shots of him/her self during activity
– 720p/60 fps option and WVGA resolutions provides professional-quality liquid smooth slow-motion playback
– Automatic 5Mp Photo Capturing shoots according to your will
– Video file editing is easy with iMovie or Windows Movie Maker
– Waterproof, impact-resistant polycarbonate housing that holds water up to 180 ft. (60m depth)
– Wide 170 degree angle and sharp lens captures more of the surrounding scene
– Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and sensor technologies for natural-color video
– USB port
– rechargeable 1100mAh Lithium-Ion battery that lasts 2.5 hours and click-in Battery Bakpac allow for a total of 5-hours recording
– Integrated battery heater for winter sports to keep battery warm
– Additional features including accessories/paraphernalia for attaching camera to different surfaces that come with the different type of GoPro Camera

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The Lexus LFA – A Different Kind of Sports Car

The Lexus LFA is designed and developed by a small group of engineers whose collective aim was to make a super car that Lexus has never manufactured till date. Advanced transmission techniques, superior design standards and quality equipment are used in this car. Speed, safety, comfort, look, feel, driving experience and every other aspect is taken care of in developing this super car.Image result for Lexus LFA

With a 4.8 liter V10 engine that shows red line at 9,000RPM, Lexus has come up with this ultra modern super car Lexus LFA. -Rear-mounted 6 speed automated transmission Sequential Gearbox (ASG) – Maximum power 552bhp, maximum torque 480Nm – Top speed you can achieve driving this car is 202mph and you can touch 62mph from 0mph in 3.7 seconds. – The exterior material used is Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP)to keep the body weight low to attain maximum speeds and Carbon Ceramic Material (CCM) brakes are used. – This is a limited edition car and only 500 are being produced. – The launch price is expected to be €368,000 (approximately £336,000) in UK

Image result for Lexus LFA

The Lexus Carbon fiber material with advanced resin technology is used for the body construction of this car making it more stable, strong and low weight.

The Lexus LFA is equipped with a V10 engine that is much compact in size with 4,805cc, producing 552bhp and can rev up to 9,00rpm to reach 0-62mph in 3.7seconds. This engine also features excellent throttle response. At 6,800rpm, this engine produces 480Nm torque. Dual VVt-I technology is used in the engine with 12-hole fuel injectors.

It has 4 driving modes with unique gearshift programs – Auto, Sport, Normal and Wet. You can manually select the driving mode of your choice depending on the weather and road conditions.

For all those F1 freaks – the Lexus LFA is in match with those formula1 cars in the engine sound both external and internal. The sound this engine delivers during revs in the city for sure make the heads turn.

Carbon Ceramic material is used for brakes. A 390mm diameter front disks and 306mm rear disks are used to meet the safety demands of this 200mph+ performance potential

A race-tuned steering to deliver the best performance is used and is made with carbon fiber material. This gives the driver the ultimate confidence even during sharp turns.

– Crash boxes at both front and rear of the car.
– Side impact protection.
– Lexus’s Vehicle Dynamic Integrated Management (VDIM) system for better operation and coordination of the ABS, stability and traction.
– Seat belt and airbags for both driver and passenger.
– Airbag for driver’s nee.

It took nine years for the LFA to roll out in the market since its year of inception 2000. The prototype model deign model was completed by the year 2003. In the year2008 this car was pushed to racing to rigorously test the performance and safety features before the launch of it in the Tokyo auto show 2009. This is a limited edition and only 500cars will be produced at a rate of 20 cars per month. You can choose among 30 colors to place an order for LFA.

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The Mercury Cougar Sports Car Was Born On the Nascar Auto Racing Circuit

You may well have thought that the Mercury Cougar auto that the origins of the Mercury Cougar auto were nothing more than a whale sized version of simple Ford Thunderbird car. Yet many are surprised that the history and development of this classic American sportscar rather was that of the NASCAR legendary Mercury “Pony Car”, which kicked nothing but but “Butt” on the Trans-Am Automobile racing circuit.

Originally Lincoln- Mercury (considered at the time to be the luxury end of Ford Motor Corporation), had devised the idea of developing, designing and marketing a small sized sports car. The germ of this idea had started as early as February 1963 with the idea in the works of this smaller sports type vehicle to be sold within the North American automobile market.Image result for Mercury Cougar

But it was the success of the Ford Mustang product that finally put the pedal to the metal (or the design and marketing staff’s OK and budgeting of departmental project funding). It is said that nothing drives a project the automobile industry than the potential of excellent sales figures and profitability’s. Even the name of the vehicle product “Cougar” is not totally unique. Cougar is in the same vein as “Mustang” – both being sleek fast racing animals.

Although the Cougar was also built on a 111 inch wheelbase similar to the mustang auto sports car, the Cougar was rather three inches and half inches shorter than its cousin – the Thunderbird. Underneath the elegant sheet metal of the Cougar was a Mustang, so to speak. In actuality the Cougar shared with its cousins – the sporty Mustang, and the dourer family vehicle – the Ford Falcon (which was also known in the Canadian market as the Ford Frontenac product. The Ford Mustang had the greatest fortune of being born from the Ford Falcon product line. Mustang enthusiasts owe a great debt of gratitude to a so called compact “Family” car. The Ford Falcon allowed both the Mustang car project as well as the Cougar car product a quick to develop, cheap to produce as well as a proven and durable base platform. Even the dash of the early Mustangs was a direct copy of the Falcons.

Underneath all of the glitter of its elegant sheet metal the Cougar car was all Mustang, using the exact same Falcon front suspension and a solid rear axle with four-leaf springs. A base 289 cubic inch V-8 made 200 bhp (gross), but the real action came in the guise of a 390 cubic inch V-8 that made 320 bhp. A GT option included a performance handling package and power disc brakes that replaced more standard front brake drums. Finally special GT wheels rounded out the package.

It has been said that Lincoln Mercury’s chief designer had envisioned the Cougar as an elegant European sports car, along the lines of the Jaguar Mark 2. How was it that the Cougar went racing?

In 1967 Lincoln Mercury turned to Bud Moore to be the point man for a shot at the SCCA Trans-Am Championship. Team Cougar made up of drivers, Dan Gurney, Parnelli Jones, Formula 1 driver Peter Revson and NASCAR driver Dave Pearson came in second in Ford Mustang’s team. In 1968 then under the aegis of Moore, driver DeWayne “Tiny” Lund went on to capture the NASCAR Grand Touring Championship.Image result for Mercury Cougar

So where and how did the Cougar go wrong and in the end become a rather non defined wishy washy bloated luxo sort of sports car by the end of its automobile production lifetime? What proved to be this product and projects undoing was the lack of true comprehension from the direct Mercury as well as Ford staff and executives as to what this car’s clear and distinct market was. It may be said that at the best they were disinterested and at the worst clueless and greedy. This lack of market focus, as well as not knowing and perceiving the needs and desires of the potential Cougar customer market proved to be the Cougar’s undoing. By the 1969 product introduction the Cougar was a little longer and a little wider. From then on it was only a short decent into landau roofs as well as the opera window type styling and options of the day. Once started this downward trend and spiral of the Cougar was inevitable. The halcyon years of the early Cougar – specifically the early Cougar model years of 1967 – 70 remain a time when the Cougar’s roar boomed out of dual exhausts and the sign of a car that had some bite to it.

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